Ademethionine (SAM) - has hepatoprotective, detoxifying, regenerative, antidepressant, antioxidant and other properties. It involves in the synthesis of proteins, hormones and neurotransmitters. The cell membrane is a donor of the metal group ademethionine in transmethylation reactions of phospholipids. It is considered a precursor of physiological thiol compounds - cysteine, taurine and glutathione. It provides transsulfation reactions in the detoxification mechanism of cells. It acts as a precursor of polyamines-putressin (stimulator of cell regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation), spermidin, spermin in the processes of aminopropylization after decarboxylation. These polyamines are part of the structure of the ribosome. It has anticholestatic effect.
Lipoic acid has hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic effects.
It is an active part of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. It is endogenous antioxidant (combines with free radicals). The multifenzyme complex of mitochondria includes coenzymes and is involved in the oxidation-decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and alpha-keto acid. It reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood and contributes to the increase of glycogen in the liver, also eliminates insulin resistance. It regulates protein, carbohydrate, cholesterol metabolism. It improves liver function. It provides elimination of heavy metals and other toxic compounds from the body. It is synthesized in the body from L-cysteine, L-glutamine and glycine. It involves in the synthesis of leukotrienes, is a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase.
Glutathione is a hydrophilic molecule that combines with liver enzymes and is excreted in the bile by biotransformation of hydrophobic toxic substances. Glutathione is involved in the detoxification reaction of methylglyoxal as an integral part of the glyoxalase enzyme system. Glutathione regulates homocysteine metabolism. Glutathione provides homocysteine vascular wall strength.
Silymarin is a natural agent containing flavor compounds. Silymarin has regenerative, hepatoprotective, detoxifying and anti-inflammatory effects. Its mechanism of action is related to the acceleration of the synthesis of various vital proteins and phospholipids in hepatocytes by activating RNA polymerase. Silymarin has a strong antioxidant effect, protecting cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and peroxide compounds. The antioxidant effect of the drug is achieved due to the binding of flavonoids to the free radicals of phenolic structures. The drug also enhances the absorption of oxygen by tissues. The drug prevents the formation of acetaldehyde during alcohol intoxication. It normalizes metabolic processes in membranes by having a strong membrane stabilizing effect. The detoxifying effect of the drug is also associated with the prevention of the entry of toxic substances into hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory effect of the drug is related with a weakening of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators - prostaglandins and leukotrienes.